The Zhou Dynasty was originally a vassal of the previous Shang Dynasty, but it came to unite the region north of the Yellow River during the crisis of the later reign of the Shang Dynasty under the brilliant leadership of Duke Wen of Zhou. Duke Wen and his son Duke Wu continued to pacify the regions nominally under the control of the Shang Dynasty and then during the reign of Duke Wu, the Zhou Dynasty came to completely encircle the remaining lands of the Shang Dynasty. Duke Wu of Zhou then demanded the injustices caused by King Zhuo to be corrected and when the last Shang king refused, the duke of Zhou personally captured the Shang capital of Anyang and founded the Zhou Dynasty in the course of 11th Century B. C. The kings of Zhou Dynasty reorganized the government structure through reforming he council of the war chiefs into a new military department and transforming the Royal Temple into the royal department of sciences. And the basis of the present day Great Wall was formed during the long eight century- reign of Zhou Dynasty. The Zhou rulers directly administered the country through appointing the inspectors of the nine provinces. The central government of Zhou Dynasty lost its vestiges of power during the middle course of its history with the rise of the regional vassal states to power. Historians often divide the Zhou Dynasty into two periods of Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou in between this middle period. And later, the Qin State would put an end to the long lived Zhou Dynasty and unite China once again during the course of 3rd Century B. C.